September 12, 2019
The Alltech 37+® Laboratory has added five new mycotoxins to their panel
This brings the total number of detectable mycotoxins that can be tested for to 54! These additional mycotoxins further increase the understanding of mycotoxin occurrence and risk to animal performance.
The new mycotoxin additions fall into our category of emerging mycotoxins. The term emerging mycotoxins refers to mycotoxins that are neither routinely analyzed or legislatively regulated, but recently research has shown more evidence of their increasing incidence and potential toxicity to animals. Now, the emerging mycotoxins analyzed by Alltech 37+ include beauverivin, moniliformin, enniantins A/A1 and B/B1, phomopsin A and alternariol. Fusaric acid is also included in this emerging mycotoxin category.
Enniatins are a group of mycotoxins produced by several different Fusarium species. There are currently 29 different known forms, but the A and B forms are most common (Gruber-Dorninger et al., 2016). Enniatins have a range of biological activities including their function as ionophores and antibiotics. These mycotoxins have shown to be cytotoxic to different cell types and cause cell death. Research has shown that the intestine and liver may be primary organ systems impacted by these mycotoxins. Additionally, enniatins are lipophilic and may bioaccumulate in animal tissues and products.
Phomopsins are a family of mycotoxins produced by fungal species that are pathogens of lupins (Battilani et al., 2011) and cause the disease lupinosis. Phomopsin is a potent microtubule inhibitor and can impact cell function and cause cell damage and death. Generally, the liver is the principle target of this mycotoxin, leading to liver failure and death of the animal. Animal sensitivity varies by species and age. Sheep appear to be significantly more sensitive than other species, although horses, pigs and other ruminants may certainly be sensitive as well. Clinical signs of intoxication can include anorexia, jaundice, ketosis, stumbling gait, liver damage and death. Phomopsin is very stable during feed processing.
Alternariol moved to emerging mycotoxins category
Alternariol was previously included in the Penicilliums group on the 37+ report, but it is more correctly located in the emerging mycotoxins category. Alternariol is produced by Alternaria species of fungi. This mycotoxin can be cytotoxic, cause DNA damage and result in cell death for many cell types, including those of the intestinal tract. Alternariol has been shown to have estrogenic potential as it can bind to estrogen receptors alpha and beta. It is less active than estrogen or zearalenone, but it can still result in estrogenic functions as well, as it may act in a synergistic way with zearalenone to alter reproductive performance.