Anupam Soni1, V.N. Khune1, Nishma Singh1, Rupal Pathak1, M.D. Bobade1, Ashutosh Dubey1, Neetu Sonkar1, Ankit Kashyap1, Subhrajit Das1 and S.K. Yadav2
Department of Livestock Production and Management, 2 Department of Veterinary Surgery and RadiologyCollege of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anjora, Durg, C.G. 491001 India
In India, Poultry population around 851.81 Million in 2019, which is increased by 16.8% over previous Census. Beside this, Backyard Poultry population is317.07 Million, increased by 45.8% over previous Census and Commercial Poultry is 534.74 Million in 2019, increased by 4.5% over previous Census. However, poultry industries fulfill the requirement of good quality of protein, essential vitamin and minerals by increasing demand of human being. The eggs and meat rich protein, fat and other nutrients and cheaply available for human being. The broiler bird grow faster rate with low mortality and increases the profitability of farm. Each step in broiler management very critical in for the broiler industry. Hence, the biosecurity should be followed to minimize the risk of infection of microbes.
Broiler: bird having average body weight is 1.5 to 2.0 kg in 7-8 weeks of age of either sex is known as broiler. Flexible breast bone and tender meat are important features of broiler.
Squab broilers: The smallest broilers, weighing 0.9 kg weighing about 28 days old are called squab broilers. These extracts are processed directly, processed, extracted and sold as a whole fresh or frozen carcass.
Chick management before birds arrive
● thoroughly, cleaned and disinfected in the shed, the surroundings and all the equipment before the arrival of the masses of chickens.
● Spread of 8–10 cm of dry and non-clay waste material such as sawdust etc.
● Start the hens one hour before the chicks arrive to maintain the correct temperature in the hen house.
● For best results, the chicks should be brought to the farm as soon as possible, and fed promptly.
Shed: The direction of the chicken shed should be from east to west to prevent direct sunlight. The minimum space requirement for one adult bird is one square. The house should be a cat, a bird and rat-proof and have a good atmosphere. The hen house and all the equipment must be cleaned and disinfected in preparation for the arrival of day-to-day chicks.
Chick management upon arrival
● The chicks should be removed from the box immediately. The longer they stay in the boxes, the greater the chance of losing weight. This will lead to death and slow growth.
● During the first seven days, give 23 hours of light to help the chicks adjust to their new environment and encourage self-feeding.
● Feed and feed the birds as soon as they arrive on the farm, and add vitamins to the water as soon as possible.
● Arrange drinkers and feeders so that the chicks have easy access to feed and water.
Rearing Day old chicks:
Older chicks of the day should be bought in the hens’ nesting grounds with a good reputation. Selected broiler chicks should be about 33g in weight and healthy. Provide enough heat to keep the old chicks warm. Avoid sudden changes in brooder temperatures during the first two weeks. Give the chicks enough space to avoid overcrowding that can lead to slow growth. Good ventilation and good lighting are important to prevent respiratory infections and encourage the chicks to start feeding on their own. Feed the chicks regularly with good quality food without further ado to make better use of the feed. However do not leave feed tanks empty for more than 1-2 hours. Chicks should be fed regularly according to a specific plan especially during the first three weeks. Make sure clean drinking water is always available. Vitamins, minerals and antibiotics can be added to drinking water within the first few days. Keep the brooder clean and dry to prevent parasite infections and contamination. Prevent sudden changes in the environment (e.g. removal of brooder bed and sliding doors) to prevent stress. Check the chicks every night before bed. Burial or rapid burial of dead birds is essential to good hygiene.
The importance of brooding time cannot be overemphasized. The first 14 days of a chicks life set the pattern for doing well. Additional efforts during the gestation phase will be rewarded for the final performance of the herd. An additional gram of body weight at seven days of age will produce six grams of body weight at 35 days of age. The incubation period will be more important as growth rates increase. Look at the chicks after two hours. Make sure they are comfortable with the temperature. Very warm chicks will try to stay away from heat, will be panting, appear quiet and their wings may drop. Very cold chicks will crawl to the hot, close-knit groups and make noise. Chickens at the right temperature will be evenly distributed, reflecting different diets (eating, drinking, resting, and sharing) and will be less flexible. Demolition of the whole house.
The whole house is usually confined to houses in areas with bad weather. The most important factor in assembling a whole house is to produce an area free of heat gradients. Partial Housing Partial house demolition is often done to try to reduce heating costs. By reducing the amount of space provided for irritation, one can save the required amount of heat and reduce energy costs. In addition, the right temperatures are easily maintained in a small area. People who use house-to-house demolition techniques have different methods of dividing a house. Under the roof curtains are widely used to separate the house. A solid 20 cm (8 in) barrier should be placed on the floor in front of the curtain to ensure that no drafts disturb the chicks. The partial installation can be controlled in the same way as the construction of an entire house with the use of a central heating source and attractive lights. Attractive Lamps With brilliant type heaters, attractive lanterns, which work in the middle of the nesting area, are placed above the heat source to attract the chicks to feed and water. Attraction lights are best used for the first five days after installation. During the day the five rear lights should be gradually increased to reach the normal light of the whole house by the tenth day. Temperature of any method installed, the floor temperature is very critical. Chicks do not have the ability to regulate body temperature for the first 5 days and thermo regulation is not fully developed until 2 weeks of age. The chick relies heavily on the manager to provide the right amount of heat for the trash. If the conditions are too cold, the internal body temperature will decrease leading to unstable growths and infections.
The best sign of low heat is chicken feet. By placing the feet on the neck or cheek one can easily learn how warm or cold the chick is. If the feet are cold, reassemble the heating and cooling systems of the litter. If they are warm enough, the chicks should fit in the nest. Ventilation In addition to the right temperature, less air needs to be considered. Breathing distributes heat throughout the house and maintains good air quality in the exhaust. Since chicks are at higher risk of air pollution than older birds. Ammonia levels should be kept below 10 ppm at all times. Young birds are also at high risk for frogs. A wind speed of as low as 0.5 m / sec (100 ft / min) can cause a significant windchill effect on older birds of the day. When rotating fans are used, they should be directed to the roof to reduce downtime. The feed and water ensures that both suppliers and drinkers are adequately stocked with respect to the quantity of stock and are properly stocked. Supporters and drinkers should be placed next to each other and inside a “hot comfort zone”. Metal drinkers height should be maintained in such a way that the lip is at the level of the bird’s back. Regular inspections and adjustments are essential. It must be cleaned regularly to prevent the spread of contaminants. Water should be 0.5 cm (0.20 in) from the drinker’s cup on the old day and gradually decrease after seven days to 1.25 cm (0.5 in) or the depth of the icon. All people who drink iron should be sprayed to reduce spillage. Feed supply Feed should be provided in the form of crumbs and placed on trays, lids or paper packaging for at least 10 days after packaging. Feeders should be enlarged over the entire growing season so that the mouth of the rhinoceros or pan can fit the back of the bird at all times. The feed level within the feed should be set so that the feed is easily accessible while the spill is reduced. Chicks should be allowed to clean the feed without using an empty feeder system to ensure that the bulk of the charge does not occur after two weeks of age.
Light intensity should be a minimum of 20 candles (2 foot candles) in a very dark place in the planting area during the flooding phase. Post-feeding food and nutrition testing Plant testing is a useful tool to judge how chicks have successfully received food and water. Randomly select the chicks and slightly soften the harvest in the morning after laying. The plant should be soft and humble. If the crops are hard, this is an indication that the chicks are not getting enough water. If the plants are swollen and disturbed by water, the chicks do not get enough food. Indicator of good or bad flood control Seven-day weights are the most complete indicator of how successful brooding management has been. Failure to achieve the proper seven-day weights will result in poor broiler performance. The seven-day weight loss regimen is four to five times the daily weight. If this level of performance is not met, prior management and brooding strategies should be thoroughly evaluated. Poultry inspection checklist Chickens should be visited as often as possible during the first week and each visit should check the following: • Chicken behavior and distribution • Ammonia air quality levels <10ppm carbon dioxide <0.3% -20 lux in a very dark place in the house • Check the temperature of the chickens and the crop filling. In broiler houses with open cases, the most common lighting system is recommended 24 hours of light during delivery, followed by 23 hours of light and one hour of darkness per day, until marketing. This one-hour darkness to train birds to adapt to the darkness, in the event of an electric shock, can cause panic and treated.
Buy a thermometer, and place it on a high chick stand away from the heat source. Record daily temperatures. The average temperature for chickens should be between 40-41oC. An easy way to determine the temperature of a chicken is to place the chick’s feet on the cheek or neck. Chicken feet should feel warm, if the chicks’ feet are cold, raise the temperature in the brooder.
Significant changes in water use should be investigated regularly as they may indicate water leaks, malnutrition or disease. Decreased water consumption is always the first sign of a herd problem. Always keep four drinkers with 100 birds, and make sure the water stays cool and clean and available 24 hours a day. Insufficient water supply will lead to a decline in growth rate
Feed should be placed on a clean egg tray, sack, or news paper within the first 7 days for easy access. Gradually introduce them to the suppliers. The rate should be 4 trays per 100 chicks. This should cover 50% of the farm area. For standard feeders there should be three feeders per 100 birds. Feed should be stored in a dry place, sunlight and rodents / mice. Liquid or molded food should not be fed to birds. Check the sample of birds 8 hours after arrival, and repeat after 24 hours to see if the birds are feeding well. Examine a sample of about 30-40 birds in different parts of the hen house. Feel the harvest gently. In well-fed chickens, the crop will be full, soft and round. After eight hours of delivery, 80% should have full plants within 24 hours after delivery 95-100% should have full plants.
Starter Feeds: During incubation, the chick uses the egg as a food source. However, during the first few days of life after hatching, the chicks have to move their body to get their nutrients from the processed feed. At this time the feed supply is very low and the nutritional requirements are very high for the chicks. Not only should proper nutrition be provided for healthy eating but also proper natural conditions to establish and develop good appetite for chickens. Final performance of the body is closely related to the initial growth rate (e.g. 7-day weight loss); thus ensuring that the chicks start well is important. Starter feeds are usually fed for a period of 10 days but can be supplied for up to 14 days if targeted equipment is not available.
Chicks that do not start well are at greater risk for disease, weight loss and environmental stressors. Feeding the recommended levels of nutrients in the early period will support good early growth and development, ensuring weight, goals and well-being goals are achieved. Feed consumption during the first 10-14 days of chicken life indicates a small portion of the total feed consumed and feed costs in use. Therefore, Starter design decisions should be based primarily on promoting biological efficiency and overall profitability rather than on individual food costs.
Grower Feeds: Broiler Grower Feed will be served for 14-16 days. Switching from Starter feed to Grower feed will include conversion of texture from crumble / mini-pellets to pellets as well as changes in component quantities. Depending on the size of the pellet produced, you may need to provide the first delivery of the Grower as a crumb or mini-pellet to prevent any reduction in feed intake because, for example, the pellet size is too large for the chicks when the first implant is made.
During this time the daily growth rates of broilers continue to grow rapidly. This stage of growth should be based on a balanced diet. To achieve excellent biological functioning, the provision of an abundance of healthy foods, especially energy and amino acids, is essential. Switching from Starter feed to Grower should be handled properly to prevent any food shortages or growth
Finisher Feeds: Finisher feeds are usually given after 25 days of age. To make a big profit, broilers grown up to more than 42 days will need additional Finisher feeds. The decision on the amount of broiler Finisher supply to be made will depend on the age you want and the weight in processing and production capacity. Broiler Finisher feeds make up most of the total food and broiler feed costs.
Therefore, the Finisher supply should be designed to maximize the financial return of the type of product being produced.
Starter Grower Finisher
Energy (MJ/kg)* 12.65 13.20 13.40
Crude Protein (%) 22-25 21 – 23 19 -23
Separate Feeding of Male and Female Broilers:
When male and female broilers are bred separately they may have the opportunity to increase profits through various dietary programs for each sex. The most common method is to use the same feeds for both sexes, but shorten the Grower and Finisher meal time given to women. It is highly recommended that the amount or time of Starter supply be kept equal for both men and women to ensure proper growth ahead of time.
Benefits of pellets compared to mash
Pellets mash: You need 3.5kgs to raise the bird from day to day. You need 7-8kg to raise the bird from day to day. No feed crashes. When the pellet falls to the ground, it is still eaten. There is a feed spoiler. When the mash falls to the ground, it mixes with the garbage and then crashes. Birds sell for 5 weeks at the same weight. Birds sell in 7-8 weeks differently. Each chicken eats all the nutrients needed in one pellet. This explains why all the birds are sold at the same time with the same weight. Each bird does not eat all the nutrients it needs because the mash is not evenly spaced. This explains why birds cannot be sold at the same time. Each bird has a different weight.
Housing systems Broilers can be placed in sharp rubbish (deep litter) or wire on the floor or in cages. However, raising broilers with cage, slat and fence is not as popular as raising garbage on the ground, due to problems such as breast bumps, leg weakness and high initial investment.
Rearing systems: It is refer to one group at a time (all in the middle of a program) or multiple groups to incubate and raise broilers.
All-in all-out system: Under all-in all-out system, the farm will have only one set of broilers, which is in the same leak at any one time. Enough chicks will be bought to accommodate all the farms, reared and sold in one place this system is more hygienic, lesser sub-clinical infections and horizontal spreading of diseases and thereby lesser mortality rate, better growth rate and improved feed efficiency. However, this system is not suitable for large-scale farming and requires a high and consistent high cost per bird.
Multiple batch system: The multi-batch system consists of raising more than one chick at a time, with a period of 1 to 4 weeks. Here, the farmer buys day-to-day chicks and sells adult broilers every week, every two weeks, once every three weeks or once a month. Chicks are raised five to six weeks old, or until they gain the desired weight and are sold to the table. India’s best program currently has 5 to 6 sets of broilers at any one time, with a weekly interval between collections and “direct marketing”. Here, the birds will be marketed daily, from 40 to 54 days of age, depending on their body weight, heavy birds to be sold prematurely; providing an opportunity for the weak birds to grow compensated.
Floor space, feeder space and waterer space: The floor space requirement of broilers varies depending on their body weight at the time of marketing, housing systems, marketing age and ambient temperature. The feeder and waterer space also varies depending on the environmental temperature and health condition of the birds. The following is the approximate floor, feeder and waterer space requirement for broilers. The floor, feeder and water space are required per birds are shown in table.1.
Table.1: The floor, feeder and water space are required per birds
|Age||Floor space / bird||Feeder space / bird||Waterer space / bird|
|Up to 18 day||450 cm2||3 cm||1.5 cm|
|From 19 days to 42 days||1000 cm2||6- 7 cm||3 cm|
Cage rearing of broilers
Broilers can also be reared on cages. Broiler cages are similar to that of grower cages. To prevent the breast blisters, the bottom of the cage may be coated with some plastic materials. The floor space requirement in cages is 50% of the floor space needed in deep-litter. The relative advantages and disadvantages of cage rearing of broilers are,
• It is easy to catch birds during the market and therefore minimizes damage
• No money is spent on trash
• There are no cases of coccidiosis
• Reduce cannibalism
• Cleaning and disinfecting is easy
• Growth Better growth and efficiency of feed
• High incidence of twisted keel
• Bones The bones of the wing will be more brittle which will be a problem for that processor.
• Birds cannot access the unknown growing material in the garbage disposal system.
• Cleaning tray files suitable for staff.
• Investment High initial investment in cages.
• Birds will not be comfortable especially in summer
Sex-separate rearing of broilers
The growth rate, low location and nutritional requirements of male and female broilers are not the same. As males grow faster than females, males need a higher position and nutrients than female broilers. For these reasons, male and female broiler chicks are raised separately, in many countries, from day to day. Here, broiler broiler chicks are offered sex “in the form of feathers for sex” and not “for sex”, as in the case of egg-laying chicks. Sex broiler brood chicks breed and are bred separately until marketing. Different foods are served to both men and women. Male broilers need more protein, while females need less energy and less protein.
• Weight The same weight of livestock can be produced by increasing gender diversity.
• Special market needs can be met. Females can be raised, dressed and sold as a whole chicken; and male carcasses will only be used for deboning and various cutting parts.
• Feeding more accurate feeding to meet the specific needs of each sex will be possible. This will lead to better growth and efficiency of the feed.
• Due to the similarity of the herd, the automatic processing equipment can be adjusted for greater accuracy in efficiency and less waste.
• Reduce the incidence of cannibalism and disorder, due to greater similarity in herd.
• Costs Additional sexual costs.
• Large breeding herds are needed to meet the demand for male and female offspring. On the other hand, hens that breed kids may require their customers to regularly buy an equal number of male and female chicks.
Old, dusty, wet or dusty waste should be replaced with high quality, new waste. In areas where litter may not be replaced after each broiler cycle due to the cost of new litter, the availability of new waste, or the difficulty of disposing of used waste, litter should only be disposed of where the chicks will be housed in the first week, and other areas where litter is disposed of. If littering in the incubator is not possible, newspapers may be placed for the first 24 hours in the incubator. The goal is to reduce the exposure of chicks to high levels of contaminants in the first few hours before the immune system has developed and the yolk stalk can still cool. The type of dirt, temperature, texture, and humidity can all affect a newly hatched chick’s ability to survive and thrive in its new environment. Chicks can lose most of their basic heat to the skin of their legs when in contact with litter. Therefore, a bed that has not been properly heated before the chicks are laid can greatly reduce the survival of the chicks. In areas where there are cold temperatures, it is recommended that you warm the incubator for at least 24 hours before the chicks arrive to ensure that the temperature of the trash is also warm. To check the temperature of the litter, a thermometer can be used, or simply, to determine the temperature of the chicken leg by touching your skin.
Anti-Coccidial Program In general, there is a health benefit with anti-Coccidial use. These products often improve intestinal integrity and keep waste. If you are using a live vaccine for the control of coccidiosis in broilers, intensive care and intestinal health care is required to ensure that a good litter status is maintained.
Withdrawal Periods: Depending on local law, a discharge will be required when using controlled drug supplements. The main reason for using the withdrawal feed, is to provide sufficient time before processing to eliminate the risk of residues of pharmaceutical products occurring in meat products. Manufacturers are advised to consult local regulations to determine the required release time. To maintain bird growth and well-being, a nutritious reduction of nutritious foods is not recommended during withdrawal.
|S.No.||Age||Vaccine||Route of administration|
|1||First day||Marek’s (at hatchery)||S/C at neck|
|2||5-7th day||RDV F1||I/O or I/N|
|3||14th day||IBD Vaccine||I/O or I/N|
|4||21st day||RDV La Sota||Drinking water|
|5||28th day||IBD Vaccine (Booster)||Drinking water|
Indices for efficient operation of broilers
1. Livability% = Number of birds sold x 100 / Number of birds initially
Average value is 97 to 98%
2. Feed performance or feed conversion ratio FCR = Total total feed consumed per kg in Kg / Means weight gain in Kg
A value of about 1.8 or less at six weeks is the best.
3. Broiler Performance Efficiency Factor (BPEF): BPEF = Live weight in kg x 100 / Feeding efficiency
The higher the price values the better. A value of 100 or more is attractive.
4. Broiler Farm Economy Index (BFEI) BFEI
= Medium live weight (kg) x percent / feed efficiency x growing time (days)
A BFEI value of 2.0 and above indicates better farm management and efficiency of birds; and a value below 1.3 indicates poor performance of the herd.