K. Shibi Thomas, V.Jayalalitha and P. N. Richard Jagatheesan
Veterinary University Training and Research Centre,
Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS)
7/2, Kozhi Pannai Road, Kottapattu,
Trichy – 620 023
The climate in poultry houses influences the well being and health of humans as well as the birds. Respiratory, digestive and behavioural disorders are more likely to occur in houses in which the climatic conditions are not up to standard. The efficiency with which feed is utilised is related to the health status of the flock. Birds that are not healthy cannot be expected to perform optimally. The younger the birds are or the higher their production level, the more sensitive they become to the climatic conditions in the house. Climate can be defined as the sum of environmental factors which influence the functioning of man and bird.
The climate directly surrounding the birds is called the micro-climate (for example, chickens in a brooding ring). In fact the micro-climate is the only thing that is of importance for the birds. It is possible that the climate in the house is acceptable but the climate at bird level is unsuitable. For example CO2 is a heavy gas and CO2 levels at bird level can be much higher than at 2 m height.
Another example is the brooding ring. The use of brooding rings means that the temperature of the house can be lower as long as the temperature at chicken level (under the brooder) is correct. This principle is applied in order to save on heating expenses. The advantages should be weighed against the disadvantages i.e. with brooding rings you can save on energy but often the labour to make and manage the brooding rings is more.
The climate of the house is influenced by Insulation of roof, walls and floor, ventilation and lighting. The factors like temperature, relative humidity, air composition, air speed/movement and light. And these factors have to be measured at bird’s level.
Layers are warm blooded (homoeothermic) i.e. within a certain range, their body temperature is quite constant. On average, the body temperature of birds is between 41oC and 42.2oC. Body temperature is kept quite constant and is regulated by part of the chicken brain (the hypophyge). This part of the brain is comparable to a thermostat. Contraction and widening of blood vessels and the speed of respiration influence heat emission and retention which consequently influence the body temperature. It takes some time before heat regulating mechanisms start functioning in newborn birds and therefore they need a higher ambient temperature than adult birds do. Furthermore, the ratio between the surface area and weight of young birds is unfavourable and they do not have any fat reserves.
The comfort zone is defined as the temperature zone in which the birds are able to keep their body temperature constant with minimum effort. This temperature zone also depends on the feeding level and housing conditions. Behaviour of birds will change when temperatures rise to above the comfort zone as they will start to pant and change their body position. When temperatures are below the comfort zone birds will also change their body position and huddle together.
The thermo neutral zone is defined as the temperature zone in which the birds are able to keep their body temperature constant with the help of physical heat regulation. This temperature zone depends on feeding level and housing conditions of the birds and other factors. The lowest temperature in the thermoneutral zone is called the lowest critical temperature (LCT). If temperatures fall to under this temperature the bird will start to use feed energy to warm itself (i.e. maintain its body temperature) and will consequently consume more feed. The highest temperature in the thermoneutral zone is called the highest critical temperature (HCT). If the temperature rises above this temperature the birds can no longer dissipate their heat. They will start to consume less feed and production will drop as a result.
The highest and lowest critical temperature depends very much on age, body weight, housing system, feeding level, relative humidity, air velocity and health
When temperatures are not within the comfort zone, birds have several mechanisms which enable them to keep their body temperature constant without having to produce extra heat. This is referred to as physical heat regulation and factors that influence physical heat regulation include:
- Tissue insulation – if birds have a layer of subcutaneous fat, they can afford to let their skin temperature drop. Only if the birds are fed properly can they deposit a subcutaneous fat layer when temperature decreases.
- Feathers – feathers have an insulating effect and decrease the amount of heat that is lost to the environment.
- Changing body position and huddling – birds can effectively regulate heat loss through body position. Heat loss can be minimized by huddling close together. In hot weather, on the other hand, the birds increase their body surface as much as possible.
- Vapourisation of water – if temperatures are high, or extremely high, sensible heat loss is minimized and almost all heat will have to be lost as insensible (latent) heat. Latent heat loss is the heat lost from the body through the elimination of respiratory moisture.
- Flow of blood through skin and mucous membranes – the flow of blood to the skin and mucous membranes can be controlled through the contraction and widening of blood vessels. The larger the flow of blood is, the more heat is lost.
Another way in which poultry can regulate their body temperature is chemical heat regulation. When the ambient temperature is not within the thermo neutral zone the birds can increase feed intake when the temperature is below thermo neutral zone and decrease feed intake when the temperature is above the thermo neutral zone.
The best instrument for measuring temperature is the bird itself. Assessing the temperature by observing the birds themselves should only be done when the birds are at rest, not when they are active or eating. Obvious indicators of unsatisfactory house climate can be observed in the behaviour of the birds, abnormal body position, external abnormalities, abnormal plumage, activeness, coughing and sneezing frequencies
Measuring the temperature is the most common way of assessing the climate in a house. Such a measurement can give a lot of useful information and is not expensive or hard to do. There are several ways of measuring the temperature, the commonly used instruments are
- Minimum/maximum thermometer (in every house or section of a house)
- Temperature sensor (computerized climate control)
- Thermometers (alcohol, electronic)
- Infrared thermometers – electronic thermometers
The temperature in a house is not uniform and therefore, there are several places where the sensor should not be placed (i.e. it should not be hung close to the wall or behind something which hinders the air flow) and should not be hung too high in the house. Furthermore, the location of the air inlet and heating equipment is important in determining the best position for the temperature sensor. It is best to place it as close to the birds as possible and in such a way that the fresh air passes the sensor before it reaches the birds.
The critical temperature for layers is 20oC. For every 1oC lower than 20oC, the birds require an extra 1.5 g of feed per day. The most efficient temperatures for layers are between 20 – 24oC. When temperatures rise above 24oC, shell quality and egg weight will reduce. The critical temperature for broilers and rearing birds is highly dependant on age.
The recommended house temperatures for broilers on the first day is 32-34oC, 1st week – 30oC, 2nd week – 26oC, 3rd week – 22oC and 4th week – 20oC. These temperatures are recommended and can be changed depending on the local climatic conditions.
The following concepts are used to measure the humidity of air in poultry houses:
- Absolute humidity = grams of moisture present in 1 m3of air.
- Maximum humidity = maximum grams of moisture that can be present in 1 m3of air at a given temperature.
- Relative humidity = the relationship between the moisture content of the air and the maximum moisture content at the current air temperature expressed in percentages.
If the air temperature is 10oC and contains 5.7 g of moisture, the relative humidity is 5.7/9.5 x 100 = 60%. (See the table 3 on absolute moisture content in g/m3 of air for the moisture content in air with a temperature of 10oC). If the same air is heated without adding moisture until it reaches a temperature of 20oC, the relative humidity will be 5.7/17.5 x 100 = 33%. So it can be concluded that heating air results in lower relative humidity. Conversely, cooling the air will result in a higher relative humidity e.g. if the same air was 4oC the relative humidity would be 5.7/6.4 x 100 = 89%. This demonstrates that the warmer the air, the greater its capacity to contain moisture.
Relative humidity in poultry houses is measured to determine whether respiratory disorders are due to too high or too low relative humidity. If the relative humidity is too high, condensation can accumulate in the house. This has a direct effect on the growth of micro-organisms.
There are several ways to measure the moisture content of the air in a poultry house, with the most common being the Manson’s wet and dry bulb thermometer (Manson’s Hygrometer), Sling psychrometer (whirling hygrometer) and hygrograph.. Measuring the moisture content in the air may be useful, however there are higher relative costs involved in the measurement of the humidity compared to measurement of temperature alone. Due to this, the moisture content of air is not commonly measured.
Humidity is controlled by the intense heating or cooling of house air in response to the temperature outside the house. When outside temperatures are low, relative humidity in the house is low, which often results in dry dust circulating in the air within the house. If the relative humidity is too high, this may result in wet litter. The ideal relative humidity for poultry is 60-80%.
The most important components of air are nitrogen (N2 approximately 79%) and oxygen (O2 approximately 20.3%). In addition to these main components there are several other gasses such as carbon dioxide (CO2), and water (H2O). Birds inhale O2 and exhale CO2 and H2O. True ‘lack of oxygen’ does not occur in poultry houses because birds can inhale sufficient oxygen even if the oxygen levels in the air are substantially lower than normal. What is called ‘lack of oxygen’ in practice is, in reality, often a combination of high CO2 concentration, high temperatures and high humidity.
The harmful gases present in poultry houses are
- Carbon dioxide (CO2) – The carbon dioxide in poultry houses largely originates from air exhaled by the birds. The CO2content of the air is used to measure the effectiveness of ventilation.
- Ammonia (NH3) – Ammonia is a product of bacteriological processes in the manure. It is easily bound to water. Ammonia is lighter than air and thus it rises in the air. The ammonia content of the poultry house air depends on ventilation, temperature, relative humidity and stocking density. High ammonia concentrations irritate the mucous membranes.
- Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) – H2S is released when organic matter (protein) in the manure decomposes. It has an offensive smell (rotten eggs) and is a very dangerous gas. When the manure is stirred or removed from the pit, the H2S is released into the air. Even low concentrations of hydrogen sulphide in the air can be fatal for humans and birds. This is why it is important to ventilate at maximum capacity while stirring or removing the manure.
- Carbon monoxide (CO) – Carbon monoxide is an odourless, very dangerous gas. It is the result of incomplete combustion due to a lack of oxygen (O2) in gas heaters (clean filters).
- Sulphur dioxide (SO2) – Sulphur dioxide develops when oil is used as fuel. The cleaner the oil, the less SO2is formed. The Maximum gas concentrations allowed in European poultry houses are in the table below.
The gas standards to be maintained in poultry houses are CO2 – <2500 ppm = 0.25 vol%, NH3 – <25 ppm = 0,0025 vol% while CO, H2S and SO2 – 0.
A gas detector can be used to measure the gas content of the air. All measurements should be done at bird level. The device consists of a pump and its most important components are the tubes which are necessary to determine the gas content. The tubes are filled with a chemical substance that changes colour when air which contains the gas being measured passes through it. There are special tubes for determining the CO2, NH3, H2S, SO2 and CO contents of the air.
Dust is harmful to the health of humans and birds and has a negative influence on the house climate. The functioning of equipment may also be seriously hampered by dust, including heating, lighting, and ventilation, and dust has also been shown to carry micro-organisms. The dust in poultry houses mainly consists of skin particles, feathers, feed particles, litter and dried manure.
The amount of dust in poultry houses is seldom measured. It can be measured in many different ways, however the processes are cumbersome and often require a multiple pieces of equipment as it is not known what is being carried in the dust each time the measurement is taken. It is currently difficult to give practical advice on how to measure the amount of dust, and what to measure for.
The amount of dust in a house depends on many different factors. These include temperature, relative humidity, type and age of the birds, type of litter used, feeding system, hygiene, etc. Proper maintenance of poultry houses and regular cleaning creates more comfortable conditions for birds and better working conditions for humans.
Air movement and airspeed
Whether or not birds are comfortable is very much influenced by air velocity and air temperature. Young birds are more sensitive to these factors than older, heavier birds. Taking into consideration the recommended temperatures, the air velocity at bird level is allowed to vary between 0.1 and 0.2 m/second. If house temperatures are low, the birds experience higher air velocities as a (severe) draft which can lead to disease. A simple way of determining the (negative) effect of drafts is the ‘draft value’.
The draft value is the temperature difference between the house air and the incoming air (in degrees Celsius) multiplied by the airspeed in m/sec D= (OT – IT) X SD = Draft value OT = Outside Temperature IT = Inside temperature S = airspeed at bird level in m/sec). The standard for the draft value is a value less than 0.8. If the draft value is more than 0.8 there is risk for drafts to occur in the poultry house. If temperatures are higher than 25-30oC, air velocities of higher than 0.1-0.2 m/second will actually have a positive effect and help to cool the birds.
The air movement pattern within a house is easier to control in this way as the influence of air velocity and outside temperature are less. It is not possible to give rules for the air movement pattern within a house because the air movement patterns depend on the ventilation within a house, the house width, the slope of the roof and the way the house is organized.
Air velocity can be measured using an anemometer. The air movement pattern within a house can be made visible by using a smoke generator or smoke powder. High range kata thermometer is also used to record air velocity.
Role of light on egg production
The egg production is associated with the length and intensity of the light received by the bird daily. Light stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland through optic nerve for the release of FSH and LH. Light energy also penetrates through the skull, skin and feathers. FSH increases the growth of the ovarian follicles. Upon reaching maturity, the ovum is released by the action of LH. The manner in which lights are installed in the poultry house has a role on their efficiency. Some of the important points regarding fixing bulbs in poultry houses are, the distance between bulbs should be 1½ times the distance from the bulb to the bird level, the distance from the bulbs to the outer edges of the house should be only ½ the distance between bulbs. In cage system, the bulbs should be placed in such a way that their rays fall on the feed and on the birds. Clean reflectors increase the light intensity at bird level by 50%, compared with no reflector. Avoid cone shape reflectors since they confine the light rays to limited area. Better to use flat type reflector with rounded edge. In case of deep litter system, the bulb is to be placed at 7-8’ height whereas in cage house, keep in aisle. Avoid hanging bulbs by a cord in open houses. Very dirty bulbs emit about 1/3 less light than clean bulbs so light bulbs should be cleaned once in two weeks.
Decreasing the length of light day during growing period will lead to increase in the age at sexual maturity, increase in the number of eggs laid during the first half of the egg production (but not in total number of eggs laid) and increases the size of the first eggs produced. Light restriction alone delays the sexual maturity at the maximum of 3 weeks. If feed restriction is combined with light restriction we can delay up to 4 weeks period.
The effect of light during the laying period shows that bird reared under increased day-light produce more eggs due to the release of FSH and LH from the pituitary. Brightness of light also has influence on egg production. On practical conditions, 1 ft candle light intensity is needed in layer houses. In multi-duck cage system, minimum of 0.5 foot candle light intensity is needed at the lower deck. For maximum egg production, 16 hours light is needed during peak egg production period. Reducing photoperiod during laying period seriously affects egg production. The artificial light can be given either in the morning, evening or both morning and evening.
Two important points to be consider regarding lighting are, the length of the light day should never increase for growing pullets and the length of the light day should never decrease for laying pullets.