Nitesh K. Singh, C.B. Singh,Dushyant Sharma and Shiwanshu Tiwari
Deptt. of LPM, College of Veterinary and Animal Sciences,
G.B.Pant University of Agri. & Tech., Pantnagar
“The role of livestock in agriculture is quite significant. Among all livestock species, poultry are being play an important role in providing self-employment both in rural and urban areas. At present poultry industry has developed in to a full flagged industry with immense potential for meeting domestic market with per capita availability of eggs and meet increasing 17-18 eggs and 91 gm. meat in 1985 to 68-69 eggs and 3.35 kg.meat at present.Poultry sector has a great potential for providing employment opportunities to the unemployed youth, rural women, small & marginal farmers and persons involved in small industries like- layer and broiler raising, feed formulation, cage fabrication, poultry pharmaceuticals, Processing of poultry meat & eggs, hatchery management, poultry equipment, poultry agri. Business, research and extension, etc.The person who have interest in poultry production can get opportunity of employment after getting training in above fields from different organizations of poultry sector. ”
This is mainly due to the advances made in genetic improvement, nutrition, disease control and scientific management practices. At present, India account for a very good share in poultry production and contribution worldwide. Indian poultry industry has been growing at the rate of 20-25% during recent decades, faster than any other meat sector in the country. India is the world’s third largest egg producer with an annual egg production of 88.1 billion eggs and 4th largest broiler production with an annual 480million broiler birds. Poultry development in the country has taken large strides only in the parts of Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and Maharashtra states, where many of the northern and eastern states leg behind in this sector. However, the demand at present is about 10-15% higher than the supply. Moreover, there is a large gap between the availability 69 eggs and 3.35kg.meat/ person/ year and recommended by Indian council of medical research (182 eggs and 11 kg. meat/ person/ year). This generate huge potential of poultry industry.
Poultry industry has contributed significantly in providing gainful employment and supplementary income to the people as is being recognized as an important instrument of socio-economic improvement among weaker section of the rural society due to its triple benefits viz. generation of self-employment, supplementary income and availability of cheap source of protein to combat the malnutrition of the rural people. The percentage of employment in the field of agriculture, veterinary and animal husbandry is becoming very tight day by day. The per capita availability of land continues to decline under the pressure of population growth. Moreover, the agriculture production is reaching to its plateau. Therefore in such conditions some alternative arrangements shall be made to channelize the energy of educated youth for earning their livelihood. Under such conditions there is tremendous scope to increase livestock production within the available resources. Amongst the poultry production can provide quick and regular returns. It can play an important role to meet out the demand of animal protein of rural population.
Present status of Indian Poultry Industry:
Indian poultry industry contribute about more than Rs. 600 billion accounting for about 0.8 % of the national GDP and 10% of the Livestock GDP and provide employment to over five million people in the country. Poultry industry with 8% growth in poultry population has witnessed one of the fastest annual growth of 6% in eggs and 10% in meat production over the last decade amongst all animal based sectors. The high growth has placed India at 3rd position after China and USA with a production of88.1 billion eggs and 4th position in broiler production after Brazil, EU &China with a production of4.5 MT chicken meat during 2017-18. Poultry farming in India occupies an important position due to its enormous potential to bring about rapid economic growth, particularly benefitting the weaker section of the rural society due to its low investment and short gestation period. Poultry sector has a great potential for providing employment opportunities to the unemployed youth, rural women, small & marginal farmers and persons involved in small industries like- layer and broiler raising, feed formulation, cage fabrication, poultry pharmaceuticals, Processing of poultry meat & eggs, hatchery management, poultry equipment, poultry agri. Business, research and extension, etc. The person who have interest in poultry production can get opportunity of employment after getting training in various fields from different organizations of poultry sector.
Rural scenario of India:
India has nearly 70% of its population living in villages. However, more than 75% of eggs and 100% broilers produced commercially are consumed in cities and towns. The demand of rural areas is therefore to be met by rural poultry. Rural poultry keeping has been practiced by rural people since time immemorial. The commercial birds do not perform to their full potential in rural areas due to adverse climatic conditions and lack of balanced feed. It is advisable to rear breeds who have capability to produce 200-225 eggs and obtain a body weight of about 1000- 1500 gms. in 4 -5 months with no input.
Need of Rural Poultry:
Rural poultry production may be an important tool and can play an important role in the rural development. In comparison to commercial poultry farming rural poultry farming has the following advantages in rural areas:
- It needs minimum use of land, labor and capital.
- Assured availability of eggs and meat in rural areas.
- Employment generation for rural people.
- Regular source of income.
- Improve socio- economic status of rural people.
- Avoid cruelty of intensive system of poultry production.
- Assured availability of protein through egg and meat to rural people.
While going for the rural poultry production, it is useful to understand local production system, their limitations, the circumstances under which system can into existence and how they can improve further some strategies should be focused for this:
Use of Suitable Germ Plasm:
Generally indigenous breeds are used for rural poultry production, as they are hardy, resistance to common diseases and do not need special attention as compared to exotic breeds. Indigenous breeds have also acquired considerable adoptability to local climate conditions due to several years of natural selection. Some indigenous breeds possess few unique genes like- Necked neck, frizzle and others, which help in better heat dissipation under tropical conditions.Because of colored plumage, long shank bone and alertness these birds can Camouflage characterto protect themselves from predators.
Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar and other organizations have developed many poultry strains suitable for rural poultry farming. These birds have combination of 50% native and 50% other exotic blood and possess other characteristics essential for rural poultry production. Phenotypically these birds look like their original native breed with two or three times egg production with bigger egg weight, better adoptability and disease resistance along with capability of bearing the stress of poor feeding and management. Some of them are as under:
Improved chicken breeds developed for rural poultry farming:
|Better immune competence
|Suitable for meat& egg
|Internal organs show black pigmentation
|Suitable for hot humid costal area
|Suitable for meat& egg
|Suitable for egg
|Suitable for hot humid areas
|Suitable for egg
|Reasonable with local birds of Rajasthan
|Suitable for meat and egg and has high survival rate
|High egg producer under farm as well as backyard condition
Suitable germ plasm for rural poultry
Use of locally available feed resources:
Natural feed resources are being reduced day by day for severing birds due to reduction of kitchen gardens, pucca village alleys, multiple cropping system and use of insecticides & pesticides due to which supplementation of balance feed for the birds become essential. Generally single seasonal grains are fed to the birds which do not fulfill the feed requirement of the birds. In rural poultry farming it is beneficial to provide some balanced diet to satisfy nutrient requirement of the birds for optimum production of meat & eggs. In rural areas many local feed resources like- sorghum, maize and course millets are easily available which can use as alternative feed resource for rural poultry. This will not help in reducing the feed cost but also proper utilization of local produce.
Use of local feed resources
Trainings of poultry farmers:
Training on various aspects of rural poultry will help the farmers to know some of the important tips related to poultry management, feeding and disease control. The local farmers need to be trained in vaccination of poultry birds. Vocational training on various aspects of poultry farming may be an important tool for success of rural poultry farming
Health care inputs:
Poultry birds which generally used for rural poultry farming does not require much health care as they are very hardy and resistance to common poultry diseases. As prevention is better than cure, but it is important note, however that the regulation do require that birds raised in rural production system be treated with antibiotics if they become infected with a disease for which a non-antibiotics treatment is not available or has not been effective. In some cases poultry farmers hatched the chicks at home by conventional method of hatching. In such conditions chicks have to be vaccinated against Marek’s and Ranikhet disease. Besides this other health care should be provided timely as per need.
Success of rural poultry farming will not ensure nutritional security but also be a tool for rural development in the country. Rural poultry farming can be one of the most promising dimension for agriculture diversification in the country and it can ensure employment especially to women farmers and increase family income on sustained basis.