Department of Zoology, Swami Shraddhanand College Alipur ,University of Delhi
Organic farming is a production system that sustains the health of people , soils and ecosystem.it relies on ecological process,biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions,rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects.organic refers to the agricultural systems used to produce food and fiber.Organic farming systems do not use toxic chemical pesticides or fertilizers, instead,they are base on the development of biological diversity a d the maintenance of replenishment of soil fertility. Organic foods are minimally processed to maintain the integrity of food without artificial ingredients,preservative s or irradiation.organic agriculture aims at the human welfare without any harm to the environment which is the foundation of human life itself.Organic foods are increasingly gaining popularity because a greater portion of the population wants to know its benefits
CONCEPT OF ORGANIC FARMING
The basic concept of organic farming allow nature to follow its natural path and achieve a natural state to achieve .Health is wholeness and integrity of living systems.It is not simply the absence of illnesses but the maintenance of physical ,mental,social and ecological well being.Organic agriculture is intended to produce high quality nutritious food that contributes to preventive health care and well being .Avoids the use of fertilizers, pesticides, a fertilizers, animal drugs and food additives that may have adverse health effects.Health,Ecology Fairness, care are most important principles.Organic food is better overall health.It does not contain any elements of toxic check pesticides or chemical fertilizers and may not affect humal health in harmful ways.Pest and diseases control work absolutely well in producing safer,healthier and final food products. .Healthy foodstuff simple means healthy people and better nurismentfor better living living for both people and animals .Organic farming should be based on living ecological systems and cycles,work with them,emulate the and help sustain them.In ecology that balance with the Environment and nature including recycling and taking care of the ecosystem.Air ,water,biodiversity climate and land needs to be protected and can be done through the use of high tech farming Organic farming should be managed in a precautionary and responsible manner to protect the health and well being of current and future generation and the environment.Fairness involved human relationship in a manner that ensures fairness in all levels and to all parties like farmers ,workers, processors,distributes,traders,and consumers,it target to produce a sufficient supply of good quality food and other products.The way of production and consuption socially and ecologically should be held in trust for future generation.
AIMS OF ORGANIC FARMING
That aim of organic farming are Keep and build soil structure and fertility,Control pets diseases and weeds ,to provide food of high nutritional quality in sufficient quality,to maintain genetic diversity of the agriculture system,Minimizes pollution due to waste material ,Organic matter restore the soil, PH,Organically grown crops produced nutrition and healthy food ,Quality of food materials is safe without any health hazards,Organic fertilizers are considered as completed plant food ,Organic farming helps to regenerate degraded lands.In old dayst the farmers were used several alternatives of chemical fertilizers like natural materials to enrich soil.The natural materials are cottonseed meal,alfalfa pellets,bat guano,fish emulsions ect.Cottonseed meal is slightly acidic typically containing a nitrogen to phosphorous to potassium.The nutrients in it are readily available to plants in warm soils without the risk of nitrogen burn that is commonly associated with chemical fertilizers .Organic farming should be managed in a precautionary and responsible manner to protect the health and well being of current and future generation and the environmet.
TYPES OF ORGANIC FARMING
Organic farming includes pure organic farming,integrated organic farming ,bio farming, nature farming , Eco farming, Biodynamic farming may avoids inorganic chemicals that may harm the soil , crops and peoples who consume it.This is natural way to cultivation. In this farming natural resources like bone meal and blood are use as organic fertilizers and bio pesticides.Integrated organic farming includes pest and nutritional management to achieve ecological requirements and fulfill the economic demands.Biological farming is natural system to built optimum soil,plant and animal health,while also incorporated the best of conventional farming to maintain production level and quality.Eco farming is most beneficial farming.This is most respectful of wildlife due to lower pollution ,produce less carbon dioxide and prevent the green house effect and not generated waste and help energy savings.In natural farming neither chemical nor organic fertilizers are added to the soil.it is related to fertility farming.Natural farming uses only organic merger to enhance the vitality of the soliand enrich its inherent power.Since natural farming does not rely on commercial fertilizersit was initially called fertilizers free cultivation.Natural farming do without using chemical fertilizers and pesticide. Biodynamic farming is an advanced organic farming system that is gaining increased attention for its emphasis on food quality and soil .
Some important techniques for organic farming are Vermicomposting,Crop rotation and polyculture,Microbial biofertilizers,Crop rotation and polyculture,effective microorganism,natural farming,biodynamics,natural pest and weed control Vermi composting is the process by which worms are used to convert organic materials usually wastes into a humus like materials known as vermin compost.It is one of the easiest method to recycle agricultural wastes and to produce quality composite.Earthworm consume biomass and excrete it in digested form called worm cast.vormicompost is an environmentally and economically friendly process to decompose organic waste.Vermicompost contains water soluble nutrients and is an excellent nutrients rich organic fertilizers and soil conditioner.it is in farming and small scale organic farming. Eisenia foetida and Lumbricus rubellis are commenly used to produce vermicompost.Vermicompust is better than compost due to its higher nitrogen phosphorus and potassium content and its ability to improve the soil structure and to increase its water holding capacity.
Crop rotation is a system of growing different crops one following the other,on same field.crop rotation benefits both the soil and plant . Polyculture crop production minimizes risks and provides stable and quality yields.Multiple croping,intercroping,crop rotation are some examples of polyculture.it create better growth conditions for plants,reduce the risk of insect pest and disease attack,better utilization of soil nutrients different crops take different nutrients from the soil thus affecting soil fertility,facilated weed control improved soil fertility ,reduce soil erosion,and preserved biodiversity. Farmers practice polyculture crop production in order to minimize production risks and ultimately provide a stage source of income and nutrition while at the same time maximizing economic and energy returns using primarily local farm technology.
ROLE OF MICROORGANISMS
Effective microorganism are a liquid mixed culture made up of lactic acid bacteria photosynthesis bacteria and yeast.They are the basis for all multikraft products,which are created by fermentation. During fermentation organic substances such as herbs sugar cane.Effective micro organism should be activated before using in the home or garden by adding water and sugar cane Molasses .Microorganisms play a leading role in countless natural process,Among other things they operate the basic drug cycles that are necessary for the plants supply of nutrients via the reaction of organic matter in soil.Effective microorganisms is used widely in environmental management for decomposition and more importantly for recycling of wastes ,both solids and liquids.Type of organic farming which focused on ensuring self sustainability of the soil by using special mannures and herbal preparations to enhance soil health,integrating plants and animals and encouraging biodiversity.
Biodynamic farming includes crop diversification which keep the plant healthy,crop rotation ,animal husbadry is involvement of livestock in farming.biodynamic incorporated the use of raw compost materials .After digging a deep hole,raw compost materials to the garden is added in layers alternating with fresh manure.These layers can be heaped up to about 2 inches above the ground after that seed and plant is then plant food waist composed of organic matter which can be used for composting tomake fertilizer .It is an effective and eco friendly way of disposing foodcwaist in our kitchen waste into a highly organic product rich in nutrients that you can use to grow vegetables and flowers with it.vegitble and fruits peelings are the number one food remnants we should keep aside. Put these items on a well drained ,level,and open area and sprinkle some wood ash to boost the composting process.Aside from wood ash ,we can also add sawdust to the compost to help speed up the composting process.If we have some livestoke ,we can add the excess manure to the compost.we also need to some natural waste to your compost for this we can collect grass clippings and leaves from our lawn,all the organic waste will be sucked and mixes inside the lawnmower bag and transfer it into composition bin.After that add the prepared kitchen waste to the garden waste already in the compost bin. The compost bin should have o handle we can use to turn as we rotate the compost for thorough mixing and to incorporate oxygen into the mixture.and make sure the bin has some holes on the side to enable excess moisture to escape as we can spin the compostand spinning the compost bin 2 to 3 times a day for best result.Wait for our compost to achieve a soil like mixture that is dark in color.Once the compost reaches this appearance ,it is ready to be spread.
Organic farming yields more nutritious and safe food.The popularity of organic food is growing dramatically as consumer seeks the organic foods that are thought to be healthier and safer.Thus organic food perhaps ensures food safety from farm to plate.Organic farming promotes enhances agro ecosystem health,including biodiversity,biological cycles and soil biological activity is hence important.Organic farming increased species richness by about 30% and had a greater effect on biodiversity.It was found the organic field had up to five times higher plant species richness compared to conventional field.Organic farming also called zero budget natural farming.The main moto of this is to compensate the cost of production of the main crop with the profits of secondary crop without using artificial chemical and fertilizer.