Dr. Sandeep Kour, Dr. Sunil Kumar and Dr. Asma Khan
Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Sher e Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, R.S.Pura, Jammu
Bio-security is a method of preventing the spread of disease in the poultry farm. It is accomplished by maintaining the facility in such a way that there is minimal traffic of biological organisms (viruses, bacteria, rodents, etc.) across its borders. Biosecurity is the cheapest, most effective means of disease control available.No disease prevention program will work without it
Biosecurity is based on 2 fundamental principles:
• Preventing the introduction of a disease agent onto a farm- referred to as ‘bio-exclusion’.
• Preventing the spread of a disease agent on a farm- referred to as ‘bioconfinement
Types of Biosecurity
o Conceptual Biosecurity
o Structural Biosecurity
o Functional Biosecurity
Conceptual biosecurity are the measures considered while planning of poultry business / Poultry shed. Important points are as follows;
1. Poultry shed should be at least 1 Km away from other poultry farm. Optimum distance for breeder farm is 3Km because these birds are way sensitive as compared to layer / broilers.
2. Distance between two shed should be 100 feet minimum to maintain ventilation in the farm.
3. Sufficient distance should be maintained for Hatcheries, slaughter house / burial pits to avoid cross infection. In my experience construction of hatchery unit and burial pits should be on other side of the farm in the direction of wind.
4. Farm site should be well connected with roads but caution is for highways. Due to dust and air pollution from highway transport, birds suffer from respiratory diseases.
5. Poultry farm should be 1Km away from residential colony / village area. Ammonia Odour, Noise of poultry bird or litter are certain problems which need to be addressed
6. Checking water supply is very important aspect of biosecurity because it spread water born diseases in the flock leads to heavy losses.
Structural biosecurity measures are important to keep poultry birds safe in the premises.
1. Burglary is the common problem in poultry farm because there is no fencing or watchmen around the periphery of shed or farm site. It is recommended to have a fence not only to avoid theft problem but to address unwanted visitor problems.
2. Generally, we plant trees around the shed to maintain temperature. No doubt trees help to reduce micro environment temperature but it also become threat to poultry birds. Trees my fall on shed in heavy wind or it may attract wild birds which transmit deadly diseases in the flock.
3. Water sources should be covered because they may attract wild birds and introduce havoc in the flock.
4. Wire nets avoid wild predator / birds to enter in the poultry shed.
5. Rodent proofing of shed is very important as far as biosecurity is concerned. Land around the shed should be kept free to keep surveillance on rodent activity.
6. Dead birds must be disposed properly.
7. Facility of Vehicle washing and changing room for staff is to be created to avoid entry of outside infection.
Functional biosecurity is also called as operational biosecurity because all measures in this group are related to day in day out activity of poultry farm.
1. Keep separate labor for different sheds (Chick, Grower and Adult birds) to avoid cross infection or limit the frequent entry in the different sheds.
2. Staff should change their cloths and wear suitable personal protective equipments(apron, gloves, mask, hair net etc.) . If possible should take shower at the entry level itself.
3. For the very same reason, vehicles coming from outside should be washed before they enter in the premises.
4. One must avoid visitors in the farm as far as possible.
5. Every farm should have operational manuals/ SOP (Standard Operating Practices), HACCP Manuals to deal with the emergencies.
6. Disinfection of shed after each batch followed by resting period (15 days) is mandate to destroy contamination cycle.
7. Daily / weekly removal of equipments for cleaning and disinfection is recommended unless it is automatic and can be done through water disinfection.
8. Foot bath (Lime Powder) is a mandatory before entering into the shed.
9. Vaccination and other medication should be done with minimum disturbance to the birds.
10. There should be a fixed schedule for vaccination, feeding, egg collection and AI.
11. In some farms, problem of insects, Rodents and even wild birds are at par. One must give attention and take precautionary measure as early as possible. Destroy flies with pesticides spraying or baiting, sprinkle bleaching powder for 5ft around the shed when there are flies. Pesticides (0.05% of sumicidin) for lice infestation.
12. Morbidity and Mortality record is important to implement frequent control measures.
13. Changes in management according to season is must as it may increase morbidity and even mortality.
14. Proper disposal of dead birds are important as they may act as reservoir for deadly infections.
15. Litter management is important as far as operational biosecurity is concerned, Wet litter may create ammonia (>25ppm) which causes respiratory problems in birds.
16.Water quality can be maintained using water sanitiser available in the market.The physiochemical quality standards of drinking water are listed below:
* pH 5.5 to 6.5 °
* Hardness (TH) (Calcium level) 10- 15°TH 1°TH=4 mg calcium/ liter
* Nitrates <50 mg/ liter
* Iron <0.2 mg/ liter
* Sulfates <300 mg/ liter
* Chlorine <250 mg/ liter
In commercial integrations, poultry diseases occur separately or in combination with other infectious agents and management problems. Immunosuppressive infections with agents predispose flocks to the effects of respiratory viruses. Opportunistic bacteria including virulent E. coli, often complicate these infections. The fight against these agents will be an on-going effort and biosecurity measures must be the first line of defence in this battle. By implementing the biosecurity steps at all the stages of farming will help to avoid outbreak of diseases.. A solid biosecurity programme is essential for a company to survive and remain profitable in the poultry business.