Dr.Om Prakash Dinani
Assistant Professor, C.G.K.V.,Durg, C.G. 491001
Poultry industry is the fastest growing sector in Indian agriculture. Current annual growth rate of poultry and agriculture sector are around 8 and 1.5% respectively. The total poultry population has increased by 12.39% over the previous census and the total poultry in the country is 729.2 million numbers in 2012. India ranks fifth and accounting 5% of world total poultry population. India ranks third in world egg production accounting around 78.48 billion numbers egg and availability is 61 eggs/person/year. Poultry meat contributing 45% of total meat production in India. India ranks fifth in the world in poultry meat production accounting around 3.05 MT and availability is 3.1 kg/person/year. (DAHDF annual report 2015-16, ICRA 2016).
However to increase the income in real terms would imply restructuring poultry processes & policy interventions. Fundamentally there are three ways in which income of farmers may be enhanced, viz., increasing the gross income, reducing the costs, and stabilizing the income. Increasing incomes by improving productivity, integrated and diversified farming system, better market price realization and special policy measures are needed. The strategies require four critical pillars—technology, institutions, infrastructure and incentive structure. Poultry based policy should be based on the principles of social acceptability, economic feasibility, technical viability and resource conservation ability.
Economical Poultry Feeding to increase the farmers income
- Feed is the major constituent in the poultry production accounts for 65-75% of total recurring expenditure. Our country is about 33 % deficient in concentrate mixture required as ruminant and non-ruminant feed. Overall growth in human, livestock and poultry populations and increased demand for biofuel has outpaced the growth in cereal production leading to severe feed shortages and consequent rise in feed cost. Feed costs are primarily driven by the cost of protein sources. Substitution of expensive protein sources like soybean meal (SBM) with lower cost ingredients would potentially reduce the cost of the feed.
- Alternate and unconventional feed resources- Alternate and unconventional feed resources help to minimize the feed cost like Azolla, earthworm meal, termite meal, feather meal, snail meal, insects etc.
- Use of Locally available feed resources- Locally available feed resources should be used as they are cheaper and easily available in the local market along with require no transportation cost.
- Self feed formulation – Self feed formulation reduces feed cost along with quality assurance of supply of all nutrients to the birds. Use of “Make Feed”(CARI) software-for easy and least cost feed formulation can be done for various poultry species.
- Bulk purchasing of seasonally available raw feed ingredients – Bulk purchasing of seasonally available raw feed ingredients will further reduce the feed cost along with save the margin money/benefit sharing to the middle man.
- Value addition of feed- Value addition of feed in form of flax seed, trace minerals Se, Xanthophylls pigment incorporation etc. helpful for production of designer meat and egg.
- Scavanging system – Scavanging system can be adopted for Deshi fowl and improved germplasm of CARI Nirbhik, Shyama, Upcari and Hitcari etc. They can be utilized for scavenging system under Backyard poultry rearing. Deshi fowl and coloured broilers reared under scavenging system also fetches premium prise in market due to more closer to organic farming.
- Kitchen waste, grain waste and their by products can be utilized for economic poultry rearing.
- Food grains of various grade from FCI godown are periodically available/auctioned at cheaper rate can be utilized for economic feeding.
- Building poultry cooperative network – Co-operative societies and Self Help Group(SHGs) -For bulk purchasing of feed ingredients at cheaper rate from wholesale market and local market.
- Initiate Small scale feed processing units-To formulate concentrate mixture at lower price.
- Government incentives, subsidy and interest free loan for poultry farmers to establish Small scale feed processing units.
- Adopting Integrated Poultry Farming System- Diversification of poultry farming activity like duck cum rice farming, duck cum fish farming etc.It will reduce poultry rearing and feeding cost. Diversification can be a major game changer. It can be of three types, viz. Product (high value enterprises), process (precision farming), and time diversification (delinking from seasonality).
- Establishing Feed Bank-It can be used in case of natural disaster as well as during price hike of poultry feed ingredients.
- Adopting diversified Poultry Farming System –Duck, Geese etc. are excellent foragers. Emu and Ostrich even able to propagate at high fibre based diet. Thus, help to reduce feed cost.
Other approaches to increase the farmers income
- Implementing ambitious Agribusiness Hubs and establishing Special Poultry Zones (SPZ) -Nammakal model for poultry production can be repeated all over the country.
- Public–Private-Partnership (PPP) – Public–Private-Partnership (PPP) in extension should be promoted for convergence and sharing of resources.
- Women Poultry Producer Training -Poultry production activities are largely in the hands of women. Appropriate policy and institutional arrangements would facilitate availing credit, insurance and other inputs and marketing services. Training women would reduce drudgery to women and improve poultry productivity and enhance their economic returns.
- Promoting contract poultry farming– Cooperatives and agribusiness firms can promote contract poultry farming including risk coverage.
- Compulsory Poultry insurance– Innovative and acceptable insurance models may be designed to evolve a suitable scheme for various species of poultry.
- Strengthening value addition and processing facilities-Adding value to poultry by-products increases profitability.
- Organized slaughtering facilities- Inedible offal’s and poultry wastes from the meat plant have large potential to be used as valuable proteins/materials for export along with hygienic meat production is possible.
- Wider and effective immunization for important economic diseases.
- Systematic conservation, genetic improvement and sustainable utilization of indigenous poultry breeds.
- 10. ‘National Poultry Plan’ (NPP) should be implemented- as a National Project.
- Increasing funding, subsidy and bank loan- Investment linked tax incentives and attractive credit facility to private investors are missing which is needed to increase.
- Increasing incomes by improving productivity along with stabilizing income and risk management through holistic approach.
Thus, it is concluded that genetic improvement of poor yielding germplasm through crossbreeding, upgrading and selective breeding to maximize their production along with local adaptability, economic feeding practices, proper health care and management practices will lead to optimization of production. MSP for poultry products, market development, product processing, packaging, value addition, cold storage facilities, easy availability of high yielding germplasm, poultry insurance, adopting diversified and integrated farming, contract poultry farming, adopting PPP model, strengthening extension services, repetition of Nammakal model for poultry production, increasing backyard poultry farming, promoting organic farming to specific areas along with increasing funding, subsidy and easy availability of bank loan for poultry farming are the key ways to double the farmers income. Farmer is not a labour or poor among the poorest, he is the ANNADATA in real sense. Agriculturer (Farmer) needed to transform into entrepreneur to double the income adopting innovative approach and technology.